Friday, March 25, 2005

Beyond embiggens and cromulent

Everyone knows (4th para) the Simpsons is really all about linguisticsand these links are just what I could come up with in a few quick searches here and there.

In a post to the Linguist List several years ago, I noted some theoretically-interesting examples of Simpsons language humor, and said that someone should collect more. Well, if I want something done well, I usually try not to do it myself, but I’ve been keeping a list off and on, and thought this might be a good place to share it.

It doesn’t include the timeless classics embiggens and cromulent — see this Linguist List post for discussion of them — and it doesn’t include Bart’s prank calls to Moe, although they are relevant for their phonological and phonotactic properties, because they’re already well-documented. This list begins with the examples from my original post (also on Beatrice Santorini’s excellent linguistic humor web page), and then goes on to the ones I’ve collected since. The episode numbers are mostly those provided on the The Simpsons official home page, though I don’t know if I've been 100 per cent consistent.

Episode: I'm With Cupid, Episode #1014 AABF11

Productive derivational morphology

Kent Brockman is narrating a story about how Apu is giving his wife many extravagant presents for Valentine's day, and the rest of the town's wives are annoyed at their husbands for their comparative romantic lameness. He says something like:

"One Springfield man is treating his wife to an extra-special valentine's day this year, (sotto voce) and introubulating the rest of us."

Episode: Miracle on Evergreen Terrace, Episode # 910 5F07

Island violation:

The Simpsons' house has been broken into on Christmas eve, and all their christmas presents and decorations stolen. Homer is telling his woes to Moe. Moe says, "You know what I blame this on the breakdown of? Society!"

Episode: Miracle on Evergreen Terrace, Episode # 910 5F07

Constituency in verb-particle constructions

Kent Brockman is narrating a news story about the Simpsons' misfortune. The story starts something like:

"Something WAS stirring in one Springfield house this Christmas eve, and what it was stirring was up trouble!"

Episode: Mountain of Madness, Episode # 812 4F10

Deixis in personal pronouns:
Homer has brought his family along on a business team-building exercise in the woods, and Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie are stuck in the National Park Service building while all the employees are off team-building. Bart is standing in front of a Smokey the Bear statue, who has an electronic voice and a little 'quiz' to administer. Bart and Smokey have the following exchange:

Smokey: (electronic intonation) "Who is the only one who can stop forest fires?

Bart: (examines response panel, which has two buttons, marked "you" and "me". He presses "you").

Smokey: (electronic intonation) "You pressed YOU, meaning me. This is incorrect. You should have pressed ME, meaning you.

Episode: “Bart’s Inner Child,” Episode # 1F04

Loss of adjectival -ed in Adj-Noun compounds
"I feel like such a free spirit, and I'm really enjoying this so-called ... iced cream."

(From Sophia Malamud’s sumer 2004 Ling 101 lecture 1 at UPenn.)

Episode: Pray Anything, Episode # 1410 EABF06

“Bad grammar”
Lisa & Bart have exchange with basketball player Lisa Leslie. Lisa says, “You got game!” LL corrects her, “I think you mean ‘you have game’.” and lectures her on speaking correctly. Bart says “You go girl!” and LL says, “I will depart, lest your bad grammar rub off on me.”

Episode: Treehouse of Horror VII Episode # 801, 4F02

Productive derivational morphology (with ‘big’ again)
Prof. Van Frink builds a debigulator. Lisa proposes he also look into making a rebigulator.

Episode: On a Clear Day I Can’t See My Sister, Episode # 1611 GABF05 SI-1605

Resyllabification (also possibly loss of adjectival -ed)
Bart is in jail for violating his restraining order against Lisa. In the cell next to him is Lou. Chief Wiggum says, ‘See what happens when you bring my coffee back cold?’ Lou says, “But you asked for an iced coffee!” Chief Wiggum says, “No, I asked for a NICE coffee, Lou.”

Episode: Marge in Chains. Episode # 421 9F28

English spelling, borrowed consonant cluster reduction
Troy McClure is introducing an infomercial, says “I’m Troy McClure, star of such films as ‘P is for Psycho’”.

Episode: Co-Dependent’s Day. Episode #: 1515 EABF10 SI-1510

Back-formation, morphology, bound cran-morphs:
Marge is in an al-anon meeting and Otto says, “You know how some people are chocoholics? Well, I’m an ALcoholic!”
(approx 20 mins into episode)

Same episode 3 minutes later:
Marge says to the group, “My name is Marge S, and I’m a Homerholic!’ Otto says, “You’re drinking homerhol? I’ll take a swig!”

Episode: All’s Fair in Oven War. 1602 EABF23 SI-1520

Gendered nouns, second language.
Luigi the Italian chef taunts Marge, saying, “Yo, Marge! Your recipe, she is pathetic!” Marge says, “She is not!”

Episode: “Today, I am a clown” Episode # 1506 EABF01 SI-1501

Non-English phonology:
Crusty on the Jewish Walk of Fame, says, “I’m a bigger name than Chaim Potok! What is he, some kind of Klingon?” (sthing like [xajəm potɑk] — thanks to Andrew Carnie for this link to quick-and-dirty (or slow-and-dirty anyway) IPA in web pages.)

Episode: My mother the carjacker. Episode # 1502 EABF18

Accusative ‘whom’
Kent Brockman is announcing the winner of the ‘Oops’ award this week, and says, ‘It goes to...’
Homer, in an agony of anticipation, goes, ‘Whom? Whom?’

Episode: Treehouse of Horror I. Episode # 203 7F04

Language coincidence
The Simpsons are abducted and Kang is addressing them for the first time. Marge says, “You speak English!” Kang says, (something like) “Actually, I’m speaking Rigelian, but by an amazing coincidence, the two languages are exactly the same.”
Later in the episode, Marge is trying to thank Kang (or some alien) and says, “Thank you, Mr. ...??” Kang says something like, “In order for you to pronounce it properly, I would have to rip out your tongue”

Episode: Simpsons Halloween Episode IX. Episode # 1004 AABF01

Comparative/superlative morphophonological rules
Kent Brockman: “Another of Springfield’s belovedest citizens has been murdered.”

Episode: Treehouse of Horror XIV, Episode # 1501 EABF21

Spelling pronunciation
Death shows up at the door for Bart. Marge says, “Run like the [wajnd]!” Then when everybody looks at her, she says, “I only ever saw it written!”

Episode: ‘Weekend at Burnsie’s.’ Episode # 1316, DABF11

Spelling pronunciation
Phish: reading an announcement, says ‘potheads’ as ‘po-theeds’

Otto says ‘They call them fingers but I never see them fing.’

Episode: ‘She of little faith.’ Episode #1306, DABF02

Productive derivational morphology, verb-particle
Homer says, ‘The word unblowupable is thrown around a lot these days.’ while assembling a rocket.
before end of initial credits

Episode: “Bart the Fink” Episode #715, 3F12

Productive derivational morphology, roots:
Kent Brockman says Krusty is busted for ‘tax avoision’, then, “I don’t say ‘evasion’, I say ‘avoision’” (10 mins in)

Episode: “Home sweet home diddly-dum-doodly” Episode #704 3F01

Productive derivational morphology
‘Scalpal hygiene’

Speech production
Tooth falls out, Lisa whistles something

Morphologically induced extra syllables.
Saxomaphone’ Homer at 16 mins
‘Flanderseseses’ Homer at 23 mins.

Episode: “Diatribe of a mad housewife” Episode # 1510 EABF05

-er (over)application to particle verbs
Marge says ‘Long-time reader, first time stander-upper.’
(Aside: this frame, long-time Xer, first-time Yer is surely a snowclone, no?)

back-formation with negative prefixes
Homer notices ‘distracted’ wonders if anyone ever gets ‘tracted’

Episode: “Mother Simpson.” Episode # 708 3F06

lexicon change
Burns getting service at the post office. Worker looks at manual and says, “I don’t see Siam, Prussia OR autogyro.”

derivational morphology, lexicon change
Burns discussing phrenology says ‘bumpage’ and ‘brainpan’.

Episode: “I am furious yellow” Episode#: 287. Production#: DABF13

back-formation and productive derivational morphology with -ahol(ic) again
Homer’s got anger control problems, and says ‘I’m a rageaholic! I am addicted to rageahol!”

Episode: "The Sweetest Apu" 1319 DABF14 Original Airdate: 5/05/02

Count-mass distinction, ‘Universal Packager’ conventions.
Homer goes into the Quik-E-Mart and demands “A beer”. Apu brings out a keg. Homer: "And a six-pack to tide me over until I can open the keg.”

Episode: “Brother, can you spare 2 dimes?” 8F23

Roots and affixes, compositionality of derivational morphology
Joltin’ Joe Frazier says “the blah blah dictionary defines excellence as the quality or blah of being excellent.”

Episode: “C. E. D'oh” (#EABF10 / SI-1410) Homer runs the plant.

Synthetic & headless conjunctive compounds:
Mr. Burns calls Homer a ‘corn-fed man-cow’

Homer says, “And now begins my reign of terr......ific management!”
Lenny says, “I thought he was going to say ‘terror’!
Carl: I didn’t think he was going that way.

Language change:
Mr. Burns says, “I worked here for three score and twain — 62 years in the ‘new English’”.

Episode: Skinner's Sense of Snow, Episode # 1208 CABF06

gonna-contraction ≠ coulda contraction
Bart: But I was gonna add buttresses!
Skinner: Gonna, shonna, wonna.

Also, don't miss this list on a Simpsons page; there's some overlap with the above, but others I haven't gotten.

Finally, of course, who could forget the episode in which Lisa builds a grammar bot for a science project? Linguo's every utterance is a language joke.
(Also in that episode, Lisa accidentally ends up at West Springfield Elementary and finds herself in a French class. As the students laugh at her, the teacher admonishes, “En français!” and they all nasalize their laughs.)

Anyway, that’s all I’ve got for now. Now that I have a good venue for them, I’ll post updates from time to time, maybe every time I collect five more. Do send your favorites!

(Really, it would be so easy to base an entire intro linguistics class entirely around the Simpsons... hmm. We are always trying to improve our FTE ratios... Might be worth trying. Update: Heck, these guys use 'em for math. Linguistics would be a cakewalk!)

Question Update: As I looked at a few Simpsons sites for this post, I noticed that the accepted orthography for Marge's trademark annoyed noise is mmm. This didn't seem adequate to me, and got me thinking about the difference between a regular prolonged bilabial nasal, [mmm] (the noise you make for yummy things, as in mmm... forbidden donut), and Marge's annoyed noise. It seemed to me it might be an ATR minimal pair, with [mmm] being [+ATR] and Marge's noise being (aggressively) [-ATR]. Does that make sense to any phonologists [shoulda mentioned phoneticians! d'oh. -hh] out there?

Update on question: Mark Liberman over at Language Log, who worries about phonetic issues on a professional basis, discusses the question and suggests Marge's noise might involve pharyngeal constriction. Now that the problem safely is in the hands of qualified experts, I can rest easy. (I will just add that, trying to approximate Marge's noise with my fingers on my larynx, it seems to lower.) I look forward to the results of the technical analysis!

Update update: Check out these spectrograms produced by the industrious q_pheevr!

Another update: And, check out the Simpsons characters' names in other languages, courtesy of Language Hat.

Update update update: ...and this follow up from Mark at Language Log. Now that he's got his database in hand, no doubt a full analysis is moments away. At one point he mentions a fiberoptic laryngoscope...I'd also been wondering about the possible utility in this matter of my colleague Diana Archangeli's ultrasound machine. Maybe when I get back to AZ in the fall I'll check it out.


Blogger Q. Pheevr said...

derivational morphology, compounding
Burns discussing phrenology says ‘bumpage’ and ‘brainpan’.

Brain-pan is another Burnsian archaism, like "three score and twain"; it's a quite old word for the skull. (The OED's earliest citation is from the Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundeville, ca. 1400.)

1:11 PM  
Blogger hh said...

Whoops! I knew that! Thanks, q. Changed it.

2:18 PM  
Blogger Joe Clark said...

Ned, almost wiping out in a canoe plummeting down a raging waterway: Guess this is why they call them rapids and not slowpids, huh?

3:37 PM  
Blogger iBeth said...

These are hilarious! Thanks--I'm about to discuss morphology with my grammar class and I think I'll call on some of these (with proper credit of course).

5:34 PM  
Blogger Unknown said...

Bart: "I was gonna put buttresses in."
Skinner: "Gonna ..."

With the help of a friend:
"Skinner's Sense of Snow"
The kids get snowed in at school because Skinner refused to call a snow day. He has to impose martial law. Bart tries to dig them out in the night.

In skimming the episode descriptions, this one came to mind:
"Radioactive Man"

Rainier Wolfcastle as Radioactive Man, working with his language coach:

Language coach: "Up and at 'em!"
Wolfcastle: "Up and at them!"
Language coach: "Up and at 'EM!"
Wolfcastle: "Up and at THEM!"

Illustrates competing forms of the 3rd plural pronoun; spelling pronunciation; ....

This is a great list. I've always wanted to do a Futurama list.

6:43 AM  
Blogger hh said...

*Buttresses*!! Thanks, caelistis! Fixed it. And I remember the 'up & at 'em' bit now too... as I recall, Rainier also produced [z] for the interdental fricative (up and AT zem!), so it's good for 2nd lg. as well. And it's a pun on 'atom'... :)

8:43 AM  
Blogger Russell said...

I just can't let it go without mention that Alan Yu at Chicago has a paper from NELS called "Reduplication in English Homeric Infixation." It's available from his site:

2:32 PM  
Blogger Joe Clark said...

Rainier Wolfcastle was trying out for Radioactive Man. The dialect coach was telling him to cry "Up and atom!" which is itself a pun that my esteemed colleagues here missed.

6:10 AM  
Blogger hh said...

Bridget Samuels over at ilani ilani notes another one, about -diddly- infixation, here; thanks, Bridget! -diddly- infixation is a topic clearly ripe for treatment in a NELS paper, too.

12:13 PM  
Blogger Blar said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

7:44 PM  
Blogger Blar said...

Episode: Homer Loves Flanders [1F14]

Portmanteau [sacreligious + delicious = sacrilicious]:

Homer: Why do you mock me, O Lord?

Marge: Homer, that's not God. That's just a waffle that Bart tossed up there.

[Marge scrapes it off into Homer's hands]

Homer: I know I shouldn't eat Thee, but -- [bites] Mmm, sacrilicious.

Episode: Treehouse of Horror V [2F03]

Literal vs. figurative meanings:

Lisa: Bart, does it strike you as odd that Uter disappeared and suddenly they're serving us this mysterious food called "Uterbraten"?

Skinner: [walking up in leiderhosen] Oh, relax, kids, I've got a _gut_ feeling Uter is around here somewhere. [chuckles] After all, isn't there a little _Uter_ in all of us? [chuckles] In fact, you might even say we just _ate_ Uter and he's in our _stomachs_ right now! [laughs] Wait...scratch that one.

Episode: D'oh-in' the Wind [AABF02]


Homer: Oh my God ... my middle name is right behind that shrub! I'll finally know what "J" stands for. From this moment forth, I will be known as Homer ... [he pushes back the shrub] ... Jay Simpson! [wipes away a tear] It's so beautiful. What a magical gift for my mother to leave me.

Episode: The Day the Violence Died [3F16]

The importance of punctuation:

Hutz: All right, gentlemen, I'll take your case. But I'm going to have to ask for a thousand-dollar retainer.
Bart: A thousand dollars? But your ad says "No money down". [shows his paper ad: "Works on contingency basis. No money down."]
Hutz: Oh! They got this all screwed up... [makes a few corrections: "Works on contingency basis? No, money down!"]
Bart: So you _don't_ work on a contingency basis?
Hutz: No, money down! Oops, it shouldn't have this Bar Association logo here either.

False affixes:

Springfield is named after Jebediah Springfield and Shelbyville is named after Shelbyville Manhattan.

8:06 PM  
Blogger JM said...

Me fail English? That's unpossible!

11:45 AM  
Blogger Doug said...

From 1F06 "Boy Scoutz 'N the Hood"

Bart reads the Scout guidebook on knife safety that Ned Flanders gave him: "Don't Do What Donny Don't Does".

3:08 PM  
Blogger Joe said...

Don't forget when Willy was teaching French class and he said

"BonjourrrRRrRRRR" rolling his R.

7:44 PM  
Blogger Suzy said...

How about Episode 2F05 when little Ralph Wiggum says:

"Me fail English, that's unpossible."

How painstakingly adorable.

6:59 AM  
Blogger mars said...

great list, though I have no backing in language.

Also brings to mind the episode where Lisa first got her "saxomaphone", where Homer also suggests a "Tubamaba" and an "Obomaboe".

11:21 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

The copter pilot says, "Welcome to Itchy and Scratchy Land, where nothing can possi-bly (long i) go wrong. Ummm (correcting himself) possibly (long ee) go wrong. Huh, that's the first thing that's ever gone wrong."


2:53 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Futurama is a gold mine too. Such as Fry's difficulties with verb-subject agreement:

Dwight: I heard alcohol makes you stupid.
Fry: No I'm... doesn't.

And English tense/aspect constructions:

Farnsworth 1: Oh, you'd like to get back to your evil universe, wouldn't you? And destroy your box with our universe inside it.
Farnsworth A: Nonsense! I would never do such a thing... unless you were already having been going to do that!
Farnsworth 1: Wha?
Farnsworth A: You heard me!

3:12 AM  
Blogger Claus Dahl said...

First joke: Shouldn't that be entroubulating ?

9:27 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Don't forget Homer's suspicion of someone (principal Skinner?) as possibly "Homersexual".

11:02 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

"Inflammable means flammable? Who knew?" -Dr. Nick

7:19 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

"Now let's go back to that ... building ... thingie ... where our beds and TV ... is." - Homer

9:47 AM  
Blogger Rufus said...

"Avosion" is a little bit suspect, since that is not actually a neologism. (Though I'm not quite up with "productive derivational morphology.)

9:59 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

[3F14] Homer the Smithers (Homer works as Mr Burn's assistant while Smithers is away).

At the dragway:

Burns: Ah, at last. Smithers, fetch the bi-oculars.

5:55 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Zepplin Rooooooooooooooles!

11:29 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Seymour Skinner is an excellent source of technically correct usage at the expense of style and cadence.

From the "Listen Lady" episode:

"I didn't know to whom to turn."

Also of note:

"Mr. Smartenheimer" (play on Wisenheimer, also used by Hitler in another episode)

And one of my all-time favorite Homerisms:

Jay Sherman: "So I said to Woody Allen, 'Camus can do, but Sartre is smartre.'"
Homer: "Well, Scooby Doo can doo-doo, but Jimmy Carter is smarter."

10:24 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Actually it's "Inflamable means flamable? What a country!" - Dr. Nick

8:54 PM  
Blogger -j. said...

Karl: "What part of 'beat it' don't you understand?"
Skinner: "I guess that would be the 'it'. I'm not really sure what that refers--ow!"

11:27 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

8F22 -- That... linguistic... thingy:

Homer: Marge, where's that... metal dealie... you use to... dig... food...

Marge: You mean, a spoon?

Homer: Yeah, yeah!

3F05 -- Don't forget the chocotastic:

Nick: Now there are many options available for dangerously underweighted individuals like yourself. I recommend a slow steady gorging process combined with assal horizontology.

Homer: [pensive] Of course.

Nick: [points to a chart] You'll want to focus on the neglected food groups such as the whipped group, the congealed group, and the chocotastic!

CABF06 -- Double entendre:

Skinner: Defying orders, eh? Well, I see you Scotsmen are thrifty with courage, too.

Willie: Okay, Skinner, that's the last time you'll slap your Willie around. I quit!

1F02 -- Orthography:

Homer: Woo-hoo! I'm a college man! I won't need my high school diploma any more! [sets fire to it, and subsequently the house, and starts singing]
I am so smart!
I am so smart!
I am so smart!
I am so smart!
I mean, S-M-A-R-T...

3F08 -- Over-inflated military-ese:

Tour guide: At this point in time, I would like to direct your attention to the particular air vehicle next to which I am currently standing. The Harrier Jet is one of our more dollar-intensive ordnance delivery vectors.

Marge: Five tires!? Am I seeing things?

Guide: And, although it looks complicated it is so well-designed, even a child could fly it.

Lisa: Can I fly it?

Guide: Of course you can not.

2:58 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Wiggum: Freeze, goombahs! We're shuttin' you down, you filthy
Lou: [whispers something to Chief Wiggum]
Wiggum: Oh, right, right, filthy I-talian-Americans!

6:35 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


6:37 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

When Homer was the Pie Man

Burns: It's cobblering time!

1:00 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Deep Space Homer:

Scientist: [resigned] Well, Homer, I guess you're the winner by default.
Homer: Default? Woo hoo! The two sweetest words in the English
language: de-fault! De-fault! De-fault!
[assistant clubs him]
Scientist: Where'd you get that, anyway?
Assistant: Sent away.

2:27 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Is it not "promulent?" A screwed-up form of prominent?

As in: "It's a perfectly prominent word."

Perfectly and promulent, of course, sounding like it came from the department of redundancy deparment.

11:10 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I did not know that the Simpsons
was studied to such a point!

1:15 PM  
Blogger DavidNYC said...

I see I'm a few years too late to this awesome thread, but there are just SO many more examples to add. Here's just one:

Crisitunity (Homer's combination of crisis and opportunity, based on the legend about them being the same word in English).

11:01 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

One of the recent Halloween episodes when Homer becomes the Blob:

Homer: "Bart, come let me lick at you!"

[Pimple-faced kid burning in the fire:]
Homer: "I'll savour you!"

[Eating pimple-faced kid:]
Homer: "Mmmm. Extra virgin."

9:03 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Really funny thread !
That's amazing,i just realize it!

7:47 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

How would you classify the Ever-so-Brilliant joke in the Tomacco episode, not spoken but rather written, The sign for the country store:
"Sneed's Feed and Seed -
Formerly Chuck's" ?

1:40 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

what about the episode with the film festival, and burns buys two of the votes... Krusty's answer to how he could vote for burns' movie was hilarious..

lets just say it moved me(quiet voice) TO A BIGGER HOUSE!!! oh shit, I said the loud part quiet and the quiet part loud. -- they are geniuses playing with our linguistic expectations so creatively!!!

11:46 AM  
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Anonymous Anonymous said...

Verbalized noun...

(Chef, annoyed...)
I don’t have time for this. I have 75 shortcakes to strawberry.

-Season 10, “Mayored to the mob.”

7:14 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Krusty get Kancelled -
Krusty - "Bette and i used to have a race horse together - Kruddler!"

1:10 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I'm sure someone will probably mention this, but Kent Brockman's comment is probably "'enturbulating' the rest of us".

3:44 PM  
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